Timeline: 1930-2005 Palo Alto Medical Foundation Then and Now
The Palo Alto Medical Clinic is founded by Dr. Russel Van Arsdale Lee. Over the next 10 years, additional physicians join the Clinic, including Edward "Fritz" Roth, Esther Clark, Blake Wilbur, Milton Saier, Harold Sox, H.L. Niebel and Robert Dunn. These physicians came to be known as the original eight "founding partners."
The continued addition of new doctors with thriving practices means a relocation of their offices (at the corner of Hamilton Avenue and Bryant Street in downtown Palo Alto) to a new clinic at the corner of Homer Avenue and Bryant Street, on the edge of downtown. The building would later be known as the Roth Building.
Twelve new doctors join the Clinic, and for the first time, the Clinic is a full-range multi-specialty group practice capable of handling the entire spectrum of health care needs.
The Clinic agrees to provide medical care to Stanford University students for a flat fee, paid in advance out of tuition, thus creating one of the first prepaid health plans in the nation.
Additional construction projects and acquisitions are required because of the post-World War II population boom and corresponding growth of the Clinic. These include acquiring a two-story home across the street from the Clinic to house the business office and laboratory; constructing a building at 333 Homer in 1953 to house the internists; acquiring offices on El Camino Real and Park Boulevard for parts of the Pediatrics, General Practice and Obstetrics/Gynecology Departments; constructing an expanded radiology building at Bryant Street and Channing Avenue; and obtaining additional space for internal medicine at 737 Bryant Street.
The Clinic becomes one of the first facilities in the nation to offer radiation therapy for cancer patients in an outpatient setting.
The Palo Alto Medical Research Foundation, a center for basic and clinical research, opens in an old two-story house with director Marcus Krupp, M.D., and four staff members. For the next 36 years, Dr. Krupp will lead studies in kidney function, particularly the metabolism of potassium and its use as replacement therapy.
Dr. Barend Hofstee publishes a new method for charting the rate of enzyme reactions, putting the Research Foundation on the map. The "Hofstee Plot" continues to be used in biochemical laboratories today.
Researchers Don Jackson, M.D,, Gregory Bateson, Ph.D., Virginia Satir, MSW, and others develop the "double bind" theory of the origin of schizophrenia. Their theories lay the groundwork for family therapy. They eventually found the world-renowned Mental Health Research Institute in Menlo Park.
Pressure to expand the Clinic continues and the three-story Lee Building is completed. The Internal Medicine department is now fully housed in the main Clinic building, while Psychiatry moves to 737 Bryant Street and Obstetrics and Gynecology to 333 Homer Avenue.
Dr. Joseph Greenberg's work with nitrosamine sets the stage for new insights into gene mutation and the genesis of cancer. His later work with Dr. Ben Johnson leads to the discovery of a suppressor gene in the E. coli chromosome.
The Association of Independent Research Institutes is founded at the Palo alto Medical Research Foundation.
Dr. Jack Remington is recruited to the Research Foundation as the first investigator with a full-time faculty appointment at Stanford University. He chairs the Research Foundation's Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, and heads studies of epidemiology and immune response to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. His work over the next four decades will focus on improved diagnosis and therapy for toxoplasmosis and the creation of a reference serology laboratory for the world.
Neil Ingels Jr., Ph.D., joins the Research Foundation and over the next four decades makes significant findings on the biomechanics of the heart. His work with George Daughters, who joined the Foundation four years later, furthers the understanding of heart-muscle motion and leads to better treatment for cardiac patients.
Drs. H. Christian Zweng, Milton Flocks and Narinda Kapany adapt the ruby laser for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, a breakthrough that establishes the laser as a revolutionary therapeutic tool for a wide variety of medical problems.
Anne Scitovsky joins the Research Foundation and begins her pioneering studies of the cost of medical illness and the financial impacts of new technology. Over the next three decades, she creates a methodology to determine the cost of disease, and studies the costs of medical care during the last year of life and of the AIDS epidemic.
The Clinic, along with other area clinics, is instrumental in establishing TakeCare HMO, one of the first HMOs under a managed health care system.
The Clinic installs a computed tomography (CT) scanner that can screen the whole body, becoming the first medical organization on the Peninsula to do so.
The Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF) is created, under the leadership of Dr. Jamplis, PAMF includes three divisions: the Health Care Division, the Education Division and the Research Institute.
PAMF opens a Comprehensive Laser Center to focus on the use of lasers in medicine, particularly in eye surgery.
PAMF opens its first satellite clinic, the Fremont Center, to serve the health care needs of the East Bay residents in Fremont, Newark and Union City. The Center continues to focus on family-centered health care today.
The Radiation Oncology Department installs a new Clinac 1800 linear accelerator, the first of its kind in the Bay Area. A year later, a state-of-the-art Clinac 6/100 is added.
PAMF is one of the first outpatient organizations to install a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine.
Drs. Jack Remington and Ben Luft discover an epidemic of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS and, with Dr. Brian Danneman, publish the first major study on treating the disease. With Dr. Yehudith Jaot, Dr. Remington discovers a method now used worldwide for the diagnosis of toxoplamosis infection in the fetus and newborn.
PAMF takes ownership of the Surgecenter, a 12-year-old outpatient surgery center located a few blocks from the Clinic. Dr. R. Hewlett Lee performs the first outpatient hernia procedure there, and Clinic orthopedic surgeons are early pioneers in performing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repairs and sending the patient home the same day.
Drs. Jack Remington, Fausto Araujo, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Anis Khan and lab technician Teri Slifer discover the profound effect that antibiotics can have on the immune response to infection by demonstrating that they down regulate inflammatory proteins produced by human monocytes.
PAMF acquires the Women's Health Medical Group, a five-person obstetrics/gynecology group, in Portola Valley. Physicians and staff specialize in "well-woman care," obstetrics, gynecology, infertility, laparoscopic surgery and menopause.
A new and expanded 56,000-square-foot Fremont Center is built to accommodate the rapidly growing "center for health and healing." The Center includes a Family Health Resource Center, staffed by a nurse educator and trained volunteers, which includes a comprehensive array of up-to-date medical information in multimedia formats.
After serving for more than a decade as a demonstration site for Varian Medical Systems equipment, the Radiation Oncology Department becomes a "learning center" for Varian. The department uses a team approach to cancer treatment, with the patient as part of the team.
The Radiology Department becomes a demonstration site for the most advanced radiologic medical equipment from three manufacturers: General Electric, Picker International and Acuson. The new, state-of-the-art equipment will be installed at the soon-to-be-completed new Palo Alto campus.
A new primary care satellite clinic with on-site laboratory, X-ray and mammography facilities opens in Redwood Shores. The Redwood Shores Center offers increased access to care through extended hours and an open-access scheduling system.
Physicians, scientists and staff members from Palo Alto Medical Clinic and Research Institute move into a new 305,000-square-foot campus on El Camino Real. The campus provides Clinic physicians with cutting-edge diagnostic, imaging and communications technology for the 21st century. Designed for patient comfort and convenience, the facility ensures ease of access to related departments and improved functionality of space. It also includes a Community Health Resource Center with educational materials to help patients and the community to make informed decisions regarding their health and wellness. The Research Institute's new Ames Building includes state-of-the-art technology for conducting basic scientific research.
The Camino Medical Group, with 12 patient care sites in the South Bay and 150 physicians, forms an affiliation with PAMF to create on of the largest non-Kaiser multi-specialty group practices in California.
The Department of Health Services Research's Wee Wheezers program, an asthma education program for families, is selected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for national dissemination in both English and Spanish, with an additional adaptation for Southeast Asian (Hmong) patients.
Based in part on the studies of the Department of Cardiovascular Biology's lipid research group that have elucidated the mechanism of dietary fat removal from the blood, the recommendations for treatment of cholesterol levels in diabetics have been changed to encourage the use of a class of drugs called "statins," even in the presence of apparently normal cholesterol levels.
PAMF completes the roll out of its electronic health record (EHR) throughout the organization. The EHR allows for instant availability of patient records and messaging to colleagues and nursing staff, as well as electronic record documentation, prescription refills and lab results.
The Santa Cruz Medical Foundation, the Sutter Maternity & Surgery Center and the Visiting Nurse Association join together and affiliate with PAMF, creating the Santa Cruz Division.
In its primary care departments, PAMF implements Advanced Access, a scheduling system in which patients are offered a same-day appointment in primary care, every time they call.
PAMF receives a $5 million gift from the James H. Clark Charitable Foundation - the single largest cash gift in PAMF's history - that will enable it to construct a new building on its main Palo Alto campus.
PAMF acquires a new cardiac MRI, one of only a few such machines in the world. The machine provides a more accurate picture of the heart than does a traditional MRI and will reduce the number of patients who require surgery to diagnose coronary artery disease and other heart conditions.
The Fremont Center breaks ground for a new 75,000-square-foot building that will house 57 additional physicians to accommodate the growing population of the community.
PAMF receives a real estate gift of two buildings valued at nearly $11 million from Richard Peery and John Arrillaga - the single largest gift in PAMF's history. Plans are underway to consolidate the information technology departments for the Palo Alto Medical Clinic and Camino Medical Group in these buildings.