HIV and AIDS-Related Cancer
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Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the immune system caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is transmitted from person to person most commonly in blood and bodily secretions (such as semen). A person with HIV is highly vulnerable to life-threatening conditions because HIV severely weakens the body’s immune system. When HIV infection causes symptoms and specific disease syndromes, the disease is called AIDS.
About HIV/AIDS-related cancer
People with HIV/AIDS have a high risk of developing certain cancers, such as Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer (see below). For people with HIV, these three cancers are often called “AIDS-defining conditions,” meaning that if a person with an HIV infection has one of these cancers it can signify the development of AIDS.
The connection between HIV/AIDS and certain cancers is not completely understood, but the link likely depends on a weakened immune system. Most types of cancer begin when normal cells change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous, meaning it can spread to other parts of the body). The types of cancer most common for people with HIV/AIDS are described in more detail below.
Kaposi sarcoma is a type of skin cancer that has traditionally occurred in older men of Jewish or Mediterranean descent, young men in Africa, or people who have had organ transplantation. Today, Kaposi sarcoma is found most often in homosexual men with HIV/AIDS and is related to an infection with the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Kaposi sarcoma in people with HIV is often called epidemic Kaposi sarcoma.
HIV/AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma causes lesions to arise in more than one area of the body, including the skin, lymph nodes, and organs such as the liver, spleen, lungs, and digestive tract. Learn more about Kaposi sarcoma.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer of the lymphatic system. Lymphoma begins when cells in the lymphatic system change and grow uncontrollably, which may form a tumor. The lymphatic system is made up of thin tubes that branch to all parts of the body. Its job is to fight infection. The lymphatic system carries lymph, a colorless fluid containing white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes fight germs in the body. Groups of tiny, bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes are located throughout the body at different sites in the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes are found in clusters in the abdomen, groin, pelvis, underarms, and neck. Other parts of the lymphatic system include the spleen, which makes lymphocytes and filters blood; the thymus, an organ under the breastbone; and the tonsils, located in the throat.
There are many different subtypes of NHL. The most common subtypes of NHL in people with HIV/AIDS are primary central nervous system lymphoma (affecting the brain and spinal fluid), primary effusion lymphoma (causing fluid to build up around the lungs or in the abdomen), or intermediate and high-grade lymphoma. Learn more about non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cervical cancer starts in a woman's cervix, the lower, narrow part of the uterus. The uterus holds the growing fetus during pregnancy. The cervix connects the lower part of the uterus to the vagina and, with the vagina, forms the birth canal. Cervical cancer is also called cancer of the cervix.
Women with HIV/AIDS have a higher risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), a precancerous growth of cells in the cervix that is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. High-grade CIN can turn into invasive cervical cancer. Learn more about cervical cancer.
Other types of cancer
Other, less common types of cancer that may develop in people with HIV/AIDS are Hodgkin lymphoma, angiosarcoma (a type of cancer that begins in the lining of the blood vessels), anal cancer, liver cancer, mouth cancer, throat cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, colorectal cancer, and types of skin cancer including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
Looking for More of an Overview?
If you would like additional introductory information about sarcoma, NHL, and cervical cancer, explore these related items. Please note these links take you to other sections on Cancer.Net:
- ASCO Answers Fact Sheet: Read one-page fact sheets (available in PDF) that offer an easy-to-print introduction to these types of cancer.
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- Cancer.Net Patient Education Videos: View short videos led by ASCO experts in these types of cancer that provide basic information and areas of research.
- Cancer.Net En Español: Read about these cancers in Spanish. Infórmase sobre estos tipos del cáncer en español.
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