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Cervical cancer starts in a woman's cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus. The uterus holds the growing fetus during pregnancy. The cervix connects the lower part of the uterus to the vagina and, with the vagina, forms the birth canal.
Cervical cancer develops when normal cells on the surface of the cervix begin to change, grow uncontrollably, and eventually form a mass of cells called a tumor. A tumor can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
At first, the changes in a cell are abnormal, not cancerous. Researchers believe, however, that some of these abnormal changes are the first step in a series of slow changes that can lead to cancer. Some of the abnormal cells go away without treatment, but others can become cancerous. This phase of the disease is called dysplasia (an abnormal growth of cells). The precancerous tissue needs to be removed to keep cancer from developing. Often, the precancerous tissue can be removed or destroyed without harming healthy tissue, but in some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and cervix) is needed to prevent cervical cancer. Treatment of a lesion (a precancerous area) depends on the following factors:
- How big the lesion is, and what type of changes have occurred in the cells
- If the woman wants to have children in the future
- The woman's age
- The woman's general health
- The preference of the woman and her doctor
There are two main types of cervical cancer, named for the type of cell where the cancer started.
- Squamous cell carcinoma, which makes up about 80% to 90% of all cervical cancers
- Adenocarcinoma, which makes up 10% to 20% of all cervical cancers
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