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    Consultative Services

    Our consultative services cover the areas of general gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreatobiliary diseases and infl ammatory bowel diseases. From 2007 through 2011, the number of patients seen at PAMF for general gastroenterology issues grew from less than 2,000 to nearly 5,000 (Figure 12). Similarly, the number of patients seen for hepatology (disorders of the liver and bile ducts), pancreatobiliary diseases (gallbladder and pancreatic cancers) and inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) grew during the same period.

    FIGURE 12
    JANUARY 2007-DECEMBER 2011*

    Figure represents the number of gastroenterology patients seen at PAMF grew between the years 2007 to 2011 from less than 2,000 to nearly 5,000. Similarly, the number of patients seen for hepatology, pancreatobiliary diseases, & inflammatory bowel disease grew during those same years.
    *Explanation of legend: General gastroenterology includes diverticulitis, GERD, irritable bowel syndrome; infl ammatory bowel disease includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis; hepatology includes liver cancer, hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis C virus infection, liver disease and liver disorders; and pancreatobiliary includes gallbladder and pancreatic cancers.

    General Gastroenterology

    General gastroenterology includes the following broad categories:

    • Functional bowel diseases (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS), abdominal bloating, functional constipation, functional diarrhea and unspecified functional bowel disorders)
    • Gastrointestinal bleeding
    • Gastroesophageal refl ux disease (GERD)
    • Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


    Hepatology includes disorders of the liver and bile ducts. Our gastroenterology teams include physicians with additional training in the field of hepatology and offer state-of-the-art treatments for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infections and cirrhosis. In addition, we have expertise in the evaluation and treatment of liver cancer. Patients who need liver transplants are referred to Stanford University Medical Center, California Pacifi c Medical Center or the University of California at San Francisco, but they also receive long-term posttransplant medical care from PAMF gastroenterologists.

    Pancreatobiliary Diseases

    Pancreatobiliary diseases include conditions such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cystic lesions of the pancreas, stones and strictures of the pancreas, obstructions of the bile duct from stones, noncancerous tumors of the pancreas and bile ducts, gallstone disease, and leakage in the bile or pancreatic ducts.

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    There are two major types of infl ammatory bowel disease (IBD). Crohn’s disease occurs when the lining and wall of the intestines become inflamed. Ulcers may develop as part of this process. This disease can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract, but most commonly involves the last part of the small intestine, where it joins the colon.

    The second type, ulcerative colitis, occurs when the lining of the large intestine becomes inflamed. PAMF gastroenterologists are qualified to expertly manage these patients with complicated IBD. Our infusion centers offer contemporary IBD treatments, including Remicade and other antibody-based treatments.