Parts Used & Where Grown
Caraway is a biennial that is widely cultivated throughout the world, and is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The dried ripe fruit or seeds are used medicinally.1
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Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:
Gingivitis (Chamomile, Clove Oil, Echinacea, Menthol, Myrrh, Peppermint, Sage)
0.5 ml in half a glass of water three times per day swished slowly in the mouth before spitting out
A mouthwash containing sage oil, peppermint oil, menthol, chamomile tincture, expressed juice from echinacea, myrrh tincture, clove oil, and caraway oil has been used successfully to treat gingivitis.
A mouthwash combination that includes Reference sage oil, Reference peppermint oil, menthol, Reference chamomile tincture, expressed juice from Reference echinacea, Reference myrrh tincture, clove oil, and Reference caraway oil has been used successfully to treat gingivitis.5 In cases of acute gum inflammation, 0.5 ml of the herbal mixture in half a glass of water three times daily is recommended by some herbalists. This herbal preparation should be swished slowly in the mouth before spitting out. To prevent recurrences, slightly less of the mixture can be used less frequently.
A toothpaste containing sage oil, peppermint oil, chamomile tincture, expressed juice from Echinacea purpurea, myrrh tincture, and rhatany tincture has been used to accompany this mouthwash in managing gingivitis.6
Of the many herbs listed above, chamomile, echinacea, and myrrh should be priorities. These three herbs can provide anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial actions critical to successfully treating gingivitis.
Indigestion, Heartburn, and Low Stomach Acidity
50 mg of oil plus 90 mg of peppermint oil in enteric-coated capsules taken three times per day for indigestion only
One trial found that a combination with peppermint, caraway, and fennel was useful in reducing gas and cramping in people with indigestion.
Carminatives (also called aromatic digestive tonics or aromatic bitters) may be used to relieve symptoms of indigestion, particularly when there is excessive gas. It is believed that carminative agents work, at least in part, by relieving spasms in the intestinal tract.7
Among the most notable and well-studied carminatives are Reference peppermint, Reference fennel, and Reference caraway. Double-blind trials have shown that combinations of peppermint and caraway oil and a combination of peppermint, fennel, caraway, and Reference wormwood have been found to reduce gas and cramping in people with indigestion.8 , 9 , 10 Generally, 3–5 drops of natural essential oils or 3–5 ml of tincture of any of these herbs, taken in water two to three times per day before meals, can be helpful. Alternately, a tea can be made by grinding 2–3 teaspoons of the seeds of fennel or caraway or the leaves of peppermint, and then simmering them in a cup of water (covered) for ten minutes. Drink three or more cups per day just after meals.
Refer to label instructions
Caraway relieves intestinal cramping and, in this way, may ease symptoms of colic.
Reference Caraway relieves intestinal cramping and, in this way, may ease symptoms of colic. One tablespoon (15 grams) of caraway seed is mixed with 8 oz (240 ml) of just-boiled water and steeped in a closed container for at least 10 minutes. Three ounces of vegetable glycerin is added, and the resulting mixture is stored in a bottle in the refrigerator. Up to 1/2 teaspoon (2.5 ml) of the liquid may be given every 30 minutes to a colicky infant or given 15 minutes before feeding.11
Refer to label instructions
Volatile oils made from caraway have antibacterial properties and may be effective in mouthwash or toothpaste form.
The potent effects of some commercial mouthwashes may be due to the inclusion of thymol (from Reference thyme) and eukalyptol (from Reference eucalyptus)—volatile oils that have proven activity against bacteria. One report showed bacterial counts plummet in as little as 30 seconds following a mouthrinse with the commercial mouthwash Listerine™, which contains thymol and eukalyptol.12 Thymol alone has been shown in research to inhibit the growth of bacteria found in the mouth.13 , 14 Because of their antibacterial properties, other volatile oils made from Reference tea tree,15 clove, Reference caraway, Reference peppermint, and Reference sage,16 as well as the herbs Reference myrrh17 and Reference bloodroot,18 might be considered in a mouthwash or toothpaste. Due to potential allergic reactions and potential side effects if some of these oils are swallowed, it is best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional before pursuing self-treatment with volatile oils that are not in approved over-the-counter products for halitosis.
Traditional Use (May Not Be Supported by Scientific Studies)
The use of caraway as a medicinal agent has remained unchanged for centuries. Its use as a digestive aid was first mentioned in the Egyptian Eberus Papyrus about 1500 B.C.2 In Shakespeare’s Henry IV, the character Falstaff is invited to have a serving of baked apples and caraway to aid the digestion and relieve gas.3 Nineteenth-century American Eclectic physicians (doctors who recommended herbs), such as Harvey Felter, pointed out the seeds not only promote digestion but also ease the symptoms of children suffering from digestive Reference colic.4
How It Works
How It Works
Caraway contains 3–7% volatile oil, with the main components divided into carvone (50–60%) and limonene (40%).19 The fruit also contains approximately 10% fixed oil along with 20% carbohydrate and 20% protein. Caraway belongs to a class of herbs called carminatives, which are plants helpful in easing gastrointestinal discomfort, including gas. The volatile oils derived from this group of plants may help alleviate bowel spasm.20
There are no human clinical trials on caraway as a single entity. However, it has been used with success in combination with enteric-coated Reference peppermint oil in the treatment of Reference irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).21 , 22 People using this combination reported experiencing less pain and noted an overall improvement in their bowel symptoms compared to those who took a comparable placebo. A combination of caraway with the other carminative herbs anise and Reference fennel has shown to be helpful in dealing with conditions of flatulence and mild abdominal cramping, especially in children.23
How to Use It
Use approximately 1/4–1/2 teaspoon (0.5–2 grams) of powdered caraway fruit to make tea; drink it three times a day. Tinctures of the extracted herb (0.5–4 ml) are sometimes used three times per day. The enteric-coated volatile oil (0.05–0.2 ml) can be taken three times daily (usually in combination with enteric-coated Reference peppermint oil) for Reference irritable bowel syndrome.24
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds
Interactions with Medicines
Caraway is generally safe for internal use. However, the purified volatile oil should not be used by children under two years of age, as oil from caraway and other herbs in the Umbelliferae family can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes.25 Large amounts of the oil (several times higher than the recommended dosages) may be potentially abortifacient and neurotoxic and should be avoided, especially by Reference pregnant women.
1. Wren RC. Potter’s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparation. Essex, England: CW Daniel Co., 1985, 59–60.
2. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1991, 95–6.
3. Grieve M. A Modern Herbal, vol I. New York: Dover Publications, 1982, 157.
4. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1991, 95–6.
5. Serfaty R, Itic J. Comparative trial with natural herbal mouthwash versus chlorhexidine in gingivitis. J Clin Dentistry 1988;1:A34.
6. Yamnkell S, Emling RC. Two-month evaluation of Parodontax dentifrice. J Clin Dentistry 1988;1:A41.
7. Forster HB, Niklas H, Lutz S. Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 1980;40:303–19.
8. May B, Kuntz HD, Kieser M, Kohler S. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:1149–53.
9. Westphal J, Hörning M, Leonhardt K. Phytotherapy in functional upper abdominal complaints. Results of a clinical study with a preparation of several plants. Phytomedicine 1996;2:285–91.
10. Madisch A, Heydenreich CJ, Wieland V, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a fixed peppermint oil and caraway oil combination as compared to cisapride. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49;925–32.
11. Bove M. An Encyclopedia of Natural Healing for Children and Infants. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1996:106.
12. Kato T, Iijima H, Ishihara K, et al. Antibacterial effects of Listerine on oral bacteria. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 1990;31:301–7.
13. Cosentino S, Tuberoso CI, Pisano B, et al. In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Lett Appl Microbiol 1999;29:130–5.
14. Petersson LG, Edwardsson S, Arends J. Antimicrobial effect of a dental varnish, in vitro. Swed Dent J 1992;16:183–9.
15. Cox SD, Mann CM, Markham JL, et al. The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:170–5.
16. Serfaty R, Itic J. Comparative trial with natural herbal mouthwash versus chlorhexidine in gingivitis. J Clin Dent 1988;1:A34–7.
17. Dolara P, Corte B, Ghelardini C, et al. Local anaesthetic, antibacterial and antifungal properties of sesquiterpenes from myrrh. Planta Med 2000;66:356–8.
18. Hannah JJ, Johnson JD, Kuftinec MM. Long-term clinical evaluation of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989;96:199–207.
19. Wichtl M. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994, 128–9.
20. Schulz V, Hänsel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy, 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag, 1998, 180.
21. Freise J, Köhler S. Peppermint oil/caraway oil—fixed combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia: equivalent efficacy of the drug combination in an enteric coated or enteric soluble formula. Pharmazie 1999;54:210–5.
22. May B, Kuntz HD, Kieser M, Kohler S. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel-Forsch 1996;46:1149–53.
23. Schilcher H. Phytotherapy in Paediatrics, 2nd ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm Scientific Publishers, 1997, 49.
24. British Herbal Medicine Association. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Part II. West Yorks, England: BHMA Publishers, 1979, 23–5.
25. Tisserand R, Balacs T. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingston, 1995, 115.
Last Review: 11-07-2012
Copyright © 2012 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2013.