What Are "Star" Ratings?
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:
50 mg of omega-3 fatty acids twice per day
In a study of people with asthma, supplementing with a proprietary extract of New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Lyprinol) significantly decreased wheezing and improved airflow.
In a double-blind study of people with asthma, supplementation with a proprietary extract of New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Lyprinol) twice a day for 8 weeks significantly decreased daytime wheezing and improved airflow through the bronchi.1 Each capsule of Lyprinol contains 50 mg of omega-3 fatty acids.
1,050 to 2,100 mg daily of freeze-dried powder or 210 mg daily of lipid extract
New Zealand green-lipped mussel supplements have been shown in various studies to reduce joint tenderness and stiffness and improve pain, including knee pain in people with OA.
The effects of New Zealand Reference green-lipped mussel supplements have been studied in people with OA. In a preliminary trial, either a lipid extract (210 mg per day) or a freeze-dried powder (1,150 mg per day) of green-lipped mussel reduced joint tenderness and morning stiffness, as well as improving overall function in most participants.2 In a double-blind trial, 45% of people with OA who took a green-lipped mussel extract (350 mg three times per day for three months) reportedly had improvements in pain and stiffness.3 Another double-blind trial reported excellent results from green-lipped mussel extract (2,100 mg per day for six months) for pain associated with arthritis of the knee.4 Side effects, such as Reference stomach upset, Reference gout, skin rashes, and one case of Reference hepatitis have been reported in people taking certain New Zealand green-lipped mussel extracts.5
1,050 to 2,100 mg daily of freeze-dried powder or 210 mg daily of lipid extract
Supplementing with New Zealand green-lipped mussel may improve rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, including joint tenderness and morning stiffness.
Supplementation with New Zealand Reference green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) significantly improved RA symptoms in 68% of participants in a double-blind trial.6 Other studies have been carried out, some of which have confirmed these findings, while others have not.7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 In a recent double-blind trial, use of green-lipped mussel as a lipid extract (210 mg per day) or a freeze-dried powder (1,150 mg per day) for three months led to a decrease in joint tenderness and morning stiffness, and to better overall function.12 However, members of the Australian Rheumatism Association have reported side effects, such as Reference stomach upset, Reference gout, and skin rashes, occurring in people taking certain New Zealand green-lipped mussel extracts. One case of Reference hepatitis has been reported in association with the use of a New Zealand green-lipped mussel extract.13
How It Works
How to Use It
The studies on green-lipped mussel have used 210 mg per day of the lipid extract or 1,050–1,150 mg per day of the freeze-dried powder.
Where to Find It
Green-lipped mussels are found in the oceans off New Zealand. In supplement form, green-lipped mussel is available as a lipid extract or a freeze-dried powder.
Because green-lipped mussel is not an essential nutrient, deficiencies do not occur.
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds
Interactions with Medicines
Not all studies have demonstrated side effects; however, members of the Australian Rheumatism Association have reported side effects, such as Reference stomach upset, Reference gout, and skin rashes, occurring in people taking certain New Zealand green-lipped mussel extracts.14 Another researcher observed nausea, Reference flatulence, and Reference fluid retention in some of the study participants,15 and one case of Reference hepatitis has been reported in association with the use of the freeze-dried powder.16
People with shellfish Reference allergy should consult a doctor before taking green-lipped mussel. Compared to lipid preparations, freeze-dried preparations contain substantially more of the protein fraction responsible for allergic reactions.
1. Emelyanov A, Fedoseev G, Krasnoschekova O, et al. Treatment of asthma with lipid extract of New Zealand green-lipped mussel: a randomised clinical trial. Eur Respir J 2002;20:596–600.
2. Gibson SL, Gibson RG. The treatment of arthritis with a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus: a randomized trial. Comp Ther Med 1998;6:122–6.
3. Gibson RG, Gibson SL, Conway V, et al. Perna canaliculus in the treatment of arthritis. Practitioner 1980;224L:955–9.
4. Audeval B, Bouchacourt P. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the mussel perna canaliculus (New Zealand green-lipped mussel) in gonarthrosis (arthritis of the knee). Gazette Med 1986;93:111–5.
5. Brooks PM. Side effects from Seatone. Med J Aust 1980;2:158 [letter].
6. Gibson RG, Gibson SLM, Conway V, Chappell D. Perna canaliculus in the treatment of arthritis. Practitioner 1980;224:955–660.
7. Audeval B, Bouchacourt P. Etude controle en double aveugle contra placebo de l’extrait de moule Perna canaliculus dans las gonarthrose. Gazette Medicale 1986;38:111–6.
8. Huskisson EC, Scott J, Bryans R. Seatone is ineffective in rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1981;282:1358–9.
9. Caughey DE, Grigor RR, Caughey EB, et al. Perna canaliculus in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 1983;6:197–200.
10. Larkin JG, Capell HA, Sturrock RD. Seatone in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-month placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 1985;44:199–201.
11. Highton TC, McArthur AW. Pilot study on the effect of New Zealand green mussel on rheumatoid arthritis. N Z Med J 1975;81:261–2.
12. Gibson SLM, Gibson RG. The treatment of arthritis with a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus: a randomized trial. Comp Ther Med 1998;6:122–6.
13. Brooks PM. Side effects from Seatone. Med J Aust 1980;2:158 [letter].
14. Brooks PM. Side effects from Seatone. Med J Aust 1980;2:158 [letter].
15. Gibson SLM, Gibson RG. The treatment of arthritis with a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus: a randomized trial. Comp Ther Med 1998;6:122–6.
16. Brooks PM. Side effects from Seatone. Med J Aust 1980;2:158 [letter].
Last Review: 11-07-2012
Copyright © 2012 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2013.