What is pericarditis?
Pericarditis is swelling and irritation of the Reference pericardium Opens New Window, which is the sac that surrounds your heart.
Pericarditis usually doesn't cause serious problems. Most people get better in 7 to 10 days. When there are problems, they may include:
- A buildup of fluid in the pericardial sac (Reference pericardial effusion Opens New Window Reference Opens New Window).
- Sudden pressure on the heart and sudden difficulty pumping enough blood (called Reference cardiac tamponade Opens New Window). This can be caused by the weight and pressure of the fluid buildup if it happens quickly.
- Reference Constrictive pericarditis Opens New Window, which can occur when pericarditis comes back or becomes a longer-term problem. The sac around the heart gets thick and stiff. This makes it harder for the heart to pump blood.
What causes pericarditis?
Many things can cause pericarditis, including:
- Viral infection. This is the most common cause.
- Heart attack.
- Chest injury.
- Recent heart surgery.
- Certain diseases, such as Reference HIV Opens New Window, Reference lupus Opens New Window, Reference hypothyroidism Opens New Window, kidney disease, or Reference tuberculosis Opens New Window.
- Medicine side effects, including cancer treatments.
In many cases the cause the is not known.
What are the symptoms?
The main symptom is a sharp pain in the center or left side of your chest. The pain may spread to the shoulder blade. For some people, this pain is dull instead of sharp. It may be worse when you lie down or take a deep breath.
The pain lasts for hours or days and doesn't get better when you rest. It's different from a type of chest pain called Reference angina Opens New Window, which only lasts a short time and usually gets better with rest.
Other symptoms may include a mild fever, weakness, feeling very tired, coughing, hiccups, and muscle aches.
Pericarditis usually isn't dangerous, but your chest pain could be caused by something more serious, like a Reference heart attack Opens New Window. And getting diagnosed and treated early can help keep pericarditis from leading to other problems. That’s why you should call a doctor right away if you have any kind of sudden chest pain.
How is pericarditis diagnosed?
Your doctor will listen to your heart during a physical exam. He or she will also ask questions about your medical history, such as whether you've had a recent illness, radiation treatment for cancer, or tuberculosis.
Your doctor may want you to have some tests, including an Reference electrocardiogram Opens New Window, a chest X-ray, and blood tests.
If the chest X-ray shows any fluid buildup, or if you have new or worse symptoms, such as shortness of breath, your doctor may want you to have a test called an Reference echocardiogram Opens New Window.
How is it treated?
If there are no other problems, pericarditis usually goes away on its own in a few weeks. During this time:
- Try aspirin, ibuprofen, or another nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Reference NSAID Opens New Window) to reduce pain. In some cases, your doctor may prescribe stronger medicine.
- Get plenty of rest. Avoid all strenuous activity that has not been approved by your doctor.
- Follow your doctor's advice about what problems to watch for, such as shortness of breath or other signs of complications.
Be sure to keep all follow-up appointments with your doctor. If you have complications or the illness gets worse, you may need further treatment. This could include medicines or a procedure to relieve the fluid and pressure around your heart (pericardiocentesis).
|By:||Reference Healthwise Staff||Last Revised: Reference April 5, 2011|
|Medical Review:||Reference E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Reference Stephen Fort, MD, MRCP, FRCPC - Interventional Cardiology