Main content

    Research Institute History: Timeline


    Original Research Institute BuildingThe Palo Alto Medical Research Foundation, a center for basic and clinical research, opens in an old two-story house with director Marcus Krupp, M.D. and four staff members. For the next 36 years, Dr. Krupp will lead studies in kidney function, particularly the metabolism of potassium and its use as replacement therapy.


    Dr. Barend Hofstee
    Dr. Barend Hofstee publishes a new method for charting the rate of enzyme reactions, putting the Research Foundation on the map. The "Hofstee Plot" continues to be used in biochemical laboratories today.


    The Research Foundation is one of 26 research organizations nationwide to receive a National Institutes of Health matching grant to fund the construction of new research facilities.


    With the nearly $300,000 from the NIH grant, and a comparable amount raised from donors, a larger Research Foundation building opened in 1958.A new research facility designed for "modern biomedical research" is built on Bryant Street with a matching grant from the National Institutes of Health.


    Researchers Don Jackson, M.D,, Gregory Bateson, Ph.D., Virginia Satir, MSW and others develop the "double bind" theory of the origin of schizophrenia. Their theories lay the groundwork for family therapy. They eventually found the world-renowned Mental Health Research Institute in Menlo Park.


    The Association of Independent Research Institutes is founded at the Palo alto Medical Research Foundation.

    Dr. Jack Remington is recruited to the Research Foundation as the first investigator with a full-time faculty appointment at Stanford University. He chairs the Research Foundation's Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and heads studies of epidemiology and immune response to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. His work over the next four decades will focus on improved diagnosis and therapy for toxoplasmosis and the creation of a reference serology laboratory for the world.

    Neil Ingels Jr., Ph.D., joins the Research Foundation and over the next four decades makes significant findings on the biomechanics of the heart. His work with George Daughters, who joined the Foundation four years later, furthers the understanding of heart-muscle motion and leads to better treatment for cardiac patients.


    Anne Scitovsky
    Anne Scitovsky joins the Research Foundation and begins her pioneering studies of the cost of medical illness and the financial impacts of new technology. Over the next three decades, she creates a methodology to determine the cost of disease and studies the costs of medical care during the last year of life and of the AIDS epidemic.


    A team headed by Neil Ingels, Ph.D., invents a technique to monitor heart motion that leads to breakthrough discoveries about how the heart pumps blood and influences treatment of heart disease, post-operative heart bypass care and mitral valve repair.


    Drs. Jack Remington and Ben Luft discover an epidemic of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS and, with Dr. Brian Danneman, publish the first major study on treating the disease. With Dr. Yehudith Jaot, Dr. Remington discovers a method now used worldwide for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis infection in the fetus and newborn.

    After serving as the Research Institute's director for 36 years, Dr. Krupp retires. Allen Cooper, M.D., is hired to succeed Dr. Krupp.


    Drs. Jack Remington, Fausto Araujo, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Anis Khan and lab technician Teri Slifer discover the profound effect that antibiotics can have on the immune response to infection by demonstrating that they downregulate inflammatory proteins produced by human monocytes


    The Research Institute's Department of Health Services Research is created with Sandra Wilson, Ph.D., as chair.


    Physicians, scientists and staff members from Palo Alto Medical Clinic and Research Institute move into a new 305,000-square-foot campus on El Camino Real. The campus provides Clinic physicians with cutting-edge diagnostic, imaging and communications technology for the 21st century.

    Palo Alto Clinic campusDesigned for patient comfort and convenience, the facility ensures ease of access to related departments and improved functionality of space. It also includes a Community Health Resource Center with educational materials to help patients and the community to make informed decisions regarding their health and wellness. The Research Institute's new Ames Building includes state-of-the-art technology for conducting basic scientific research.


    The Department of Health Services Research's Wee Wheezers program, an asthma education program for families, is selected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for national dissemination in both English and Spanish, with an additional adaptation for Southeast Asian (Hmong) patients.


    Dr. Allen Cooper retires as head of the Research Institute and returns to Stanford University.


    Dr. Hal Luft hired as director of the Research Institute and interim chair of the Health Policy department.

    Back to top