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    Nutritional Effects of Refining and Enrichment on Wheat and Rice

    Table 1. Effects of Refining and Enrichment on Wheat and Rice. [1]

     

    Wheat

    Rice

    Whole

    Refined

    Enriched

    Whole

    Refined

    Enriched

    Food energy

    100% 107% 107% 100% 99% 99%

    Carbohydrates

    100% 105% 105% 100% 104% 104%

    Fiber

    100% 22% 22% 100% 37% 37%

    Protein

    100% 75% 75% 100% 90% 90%

    Thiamin (B 1)

    100% 27% 176% 100% 17% 144%

    Riboflavin (B 2)

    100% 19% 230% 100% 53% 53%

    Niacin (B 3)

    100% 20% 93% 100% 31% 82%

    Pantothenic Acid (B 5)

    100% 43% 43% 100% 68% 68%

    Pyridoxine (B 6)

    100% 13% 13% 100% 32% 32%

    Folate (B 9)

    100% 59% 350% 100% 40% 1155%

    Vitamin E

    100% 5% 5% 100% 18% 18%

    Calcium

    100% 44% 44% 100% 100% 100%

    Iron

    100% 30% 120% 100% 54% 293%

    Magnesium

    100% 16% 16% 100% 17% 17%

    Phosphorus

    100% 31% 31% 100% 35% 35%

    Potassium

    100% 26% 26% 100% 52% 52%

    Sodium

    100% 40% 40% 100% 71% 71%

    Zinc

    100% 24% 24% 100% 29% 29%

    Copper

    100% 38% 38% 100% 79% 79%

    Manganese

    100% 18% 18% 100% 29% 29%

    Selenium

    100% 48% 48% 100% 65% 65%
    1. ^USDA Standard Reference 17 Food Nutrient Database


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