At one time or another, everyone has had a minor facial injury that caused pain, swelling, or bruising. Home treatment is usually all that is needed for mild bumps or bruises.
Causes of facial injuries
Facial injuries most commonly occur during:
- Sports or recreational activities, such as ice hockey, basketball, rugby, soccer, or martial arts.
- Work-related tasks or projects around the home.
- Motor vehicle crashes.
- Accidental falls.
In children, most facial injuries occur during sports or play or are caused by accidental falls. Minor facial injuries in young children tend to be less severe than similar facial injuries that occur in older children or adults. Young children are less likely to break a facial bone because they have fat pads that cushion their faces and their bones are more flexible. But young children are more likely to be bitten in the face by an animal.
Head injuries may occur at the same time as a facial injury, so be sure to check for Reference symptoms of a head injury Opens New Window. For more information, see the topic Reference Head Injuries, Age 3 and Younger or Reference Head Injuries, Age 4 and Older.
Types of injuries
Facial injuries may be caused by a direct blow, penetrating injury, or fall. Pain may be sudden and severe. Bruising and swelling may develop soon after the injury. Acute injuries include:
- A Reference cut or puncture to your face or inside your mouth. This often occurs with even a minor injury. But a cut or puncture is likely to occur when a jaw or facial bone is broken. The bone may come through the skin or poke into the mouth.
- Reference Bruises from a tear or rupture of small blood vessels under the skin. See a picture of a Reference bruise (contusion) Opens New Window Reference Opens New Window.
- Broken bones (fractures). See an image of a Reference fractured cheekbone Opens New Window Reference Opens New Window.
- A dislocated jaw, which may occur when the lower jawbone (mandible) is pulled apart from one or both of the joints connecting it to the base of the skull at the temporomandibular (TM) joints. This can cause problems even if the jaw pops back into place.
Treatment for a facial injury may include first aid measures, medicine, and in some cases surgery. Treatment depends on:
- The location, type, and severity of the injury.
- How long ago the injury occurred.
- Your age, health condition, and other activities, such as work, sports, or hobbies.
When you have had a facial injury, it is important to look for signs of other injuries, such as a Reference spinal injury Opens New Window, Reference eye injury Opens New Window, or an injury to the mouth, such as a cut lip or injured tooth.
Reference Check your symptoms to decide if and when you should see a doctor.
|By:||Reference Healthwise Staff||Last Revised: Reference July 25, 2012|
|Medical Review:||Reference William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
Reference David Messenger, MD