What Are "Star" Ratings?
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.
This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:
Chronic Venous Insufficiency
50 to 100 mg two to three times daily
Proanthocyanidins, a group of flavonoids, have been shown to strengthen capillaries in double-blind research.
Reference Proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a group of flavonoids found in pine bark, grape seed, grape skin, Reference bilberry, Reference cranberry, black currant, Reference green tea, black tea, and other plants, have also been shown to strengthen capillaries in double-blind research using as little as two 50 mg tablets per day.1 In a double-blind trial using a total of 150 mg OPCs per day, French researchers reported reduced symptoms for women with CVI.2 In another French double-blind trial, supplementation with 100 mg taken three times per day resulted in benefits within four weeks.3
150 mg daily
Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids extracted from grape seeds, have been shown to increase capillary strength in people with hypertension and diabetes.
Compounds called Reference flavonoids may help strengthen weakened capillaries. In test tube and animal studies, they have been shown to protect collagen, one of the most important components of capillary walls.4 , 5 A preliminary study found that Reference proanthocyanidins (flavonoids extracted from grape seeds), 150 mg per day, increased capillary strength in people with Reference hypertension and/or Reference diabetes.6 A double-blind trial found a combination of two flavonoids (900 mg per day of diosmin and 100 mg per day hesperidin) for six weeks reduced symptoms of capillary fragility.7 Use of vitamin C with flavonoids, particularly Reference quercetin, rutin, and hesperidin, is sometimes recommended for capillary fragility.8 Doctors often recommend 400 mg of rutin or quercetin three times per day or 1 gram of citrus flavonoids three times per day.
150 mg daily
Proanthocyanidins, a group of flavonoids found in pine bark, grape seed, and other plant sources, may help slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy.
Reference Proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a group of flavonoids found in pine bark, grape seed, and other plant sources have been reported in preliminary French trials to help limit the progression of retinopathy.9 , 10 In one controlled trial, 60% of people with diabetes taking 150 mg per day of OPCs from grape seed extract had no progression of retinopathy compared to 47% of those taking a placebo.11
1.1 to 1.66 mg per 2.2 lbs (1 kg) of body weight per day during periods of high sun exposure
Proanthocyanidins are a group of flavonoids found in pine bark, grape seed, and other plant sources that may increase the amount of ultraviolet rays necessary to cause sunburn.
Trials have tested combinations of several Reference antioxidants. One preliminary study found that a daily combination of Reference beta-carotene (6 mg), lycopene (6 mg), Reference vitamin E (15 IU), and Reference selenium for seven weeks protected against ultraviolet light.12 However, a double-blind trial of a combination of smaller amounts of several Reference carotenoids, vitamins C and E, selenium, and Reference proanthocyanidins did not find significant UV protection compared with placebo.13 Similarly, in a controlled trial, a combination of selenium, Reference copper, and vitamins was found to be ineffective.14
Reference Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are a group of flavonoids found in Reference pine bark, Reference grape seed, and other plant sources. In a preliminary trial, volunteers were supplemented with Pycnogenol, an extract of French maritime pine bark rich in OPCs, in the amount of 1.1 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day for the first four weeks, and 1.66 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day for the next four weeks.15 Compared with ultraviolet sensitivity before supplementation, the lower amount of Pycnogenol was found to significantly increase the amount of ultraviolet rays necessary to cause sunburn, and the higher amount was significantly more effective than the lower amount.
Refer to label instructions
One trial found that supplementing with proanthocyanidins improved the function of leg veins in people with widespread varicose veins.
A small, preliminary trial found that supplementation with 150 mg of Reference proanthocyanidins per day improved the function of leg veins after a single application in people with widespread varicose veins.16 Double-blind trials are needed to determine whether extended use of proanthocyanidins can substantially improve this condition.
How It Works
How to Use It
Where to Find It
Proanthocyanidins can be found in many plants, most notably pine bark, grape seed, and grape skin. However, Reference bilberry, Reference cranberry, black currant, Reference green tea, black tea, and other plants also contain these Reference flavonoids. Nutritional supplements containing proanthocyanidins extracts from various plant sources are available, alone or in combination with other nutrients, in herbal extracts, capsules, and tablets.
Reference Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are not classified as essential nutrients because their absence does not induce a deficiency state. However, proanthocyanidins may have many health benefits, and anyone not eating the various plants that contain them would not derive these benefits.
Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds
Interactions with Medicines
Reference Flavonoids , in general, and proanthocyanidins, specifically, have not been associated with any consistent side effects. As they are water-soluble nutrients, excess intake is simply excreted in the urine.
1. Dartenuc JY, Marache P, Choussat H. Resistance Capillaire en Geriatrie Etude d’un Microangioprotecteur. Bordeax Médical 1980;13:903–7 [in French].
2. Delacroix P. Etude en Double Avengle de l’Endotelon dans l’Insuffisance Veineuse Chronique. Therapeutique, la Revue de Medicine 1981;Sept 27–28:1793–1802 [in French].
3. Thebaut JF, Thebaut P, Vin F. Study of Endotelon in functional manifestations of peripheral venous insufficiency. Gazette Medicale 1985;92:96–100 [in French].
4. Schlebusch H, Kern D. Stabilization of collagen by polyphenols. Angiologica 1972;9:248–56 [in German].
5. Monboisse J, Braquet P, Randoux A, Borel J. Non-enzymatic degradation of acid-soluble calf skin collagen by superoxide ion: protective effect of flavonoids. Biochem Pharmacol 1983;32:53–8.
6. Lagrue G, Olivier-Martin F, Grillot A. A study of the effects of procyanidol oligomers on capillary resistance in hypertension and in certain nephropathies. Sem Hop 1981;57:1399–401 [in French].
7. Galley P, Thiollet M. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a new veno-active flavonoid fraction (S 5682) in the treatment of symptomatic capillary fragility. Int Angiol 1993;12:69–72.
8. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Andover: Intercept Ltd., 1995, 277.
9. Fromantin M. Procyanidolic oligomers in the treatment of fragile capillaries and diabetic retinopathy. Med Int 1981;16:432–4 [in French].
10. Verin MM, Vildy A, Maurin JF. Retinopathies and OPC. Bordeaux Medicale 1978;11:1467–74 [in French].
11. Arne JL. Contribution to the study of procyanidolic oligomeres: Endotelon in diabetic retinopathy (in regard to 30 observations). Gaz Med de France 1982;89:3610–4 [in French].
12. Cesarini JP, Michel L, Maurette JM, et al. Immediate effects of UV radiation on the skin: modification by an antioxidant complex containing carotenoids. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2003;19:182–9.
13. Greul AK, Grundmann JU, Heinrich F, et al. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2002;15:307–15.
14. La Ruche G, Cesarini JP. Protective effect of oral selenium plus copper associated with vitamin complex on sunburn cell formation in human skin. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1991;8:232–5.
15. Saliou C, Rimbach G, Moini H, et al. Solar ultraviolet-induced erythema in human skin and nuclear factor-kappa-B-dependent gene expression in keratinocytes are modulated by a French maritime pine bark extract. Free Radic Biol Med 2001;30:154–60.
16. Royer RJ, Schmidt CL. [Evaluation of venotropic drugs by venous gas plethysmography. A study of procyanidolic oligomers]. Sem Hop 1981;57:2009–13 [in French].
Last Review: 11-07-2012
Copyright © 2012 Aisle7. All rights reserved. Aisle7.com
The information presented in Aisle7 is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires June 2013.