Swollen Glands and Other Lumps Under the Skin
Most swollen glands or lumps under the skin are not cause for concern. The glands ( lymph nodes ) on either side of the neck, under the jaw, or behind the ears commonly swell when you have a cold or sore throat.
More serious infections may cause the glands to enlarge and become very firm and tender. Glands can also swell and become tender after an injury, such as a cut or bite, or when a tumor or infection occurs in the mouth, head, or neck.
Swollen glands and other lumps under the skin can be caused by many different things, including illness, infection, or another cause.
Swollen glands commonly develop when the body fights infections from colds, insect bites, or small cuts. More serious infections may cause the glands to enlarge and become firm, hard, or tender. Examples of such infections include:
- Bacterial infections , such as:
, such as:
- A viral infection of the skin ( molluscum contagiosum ), which causes small pearly or flesh-colored bumps.
- Measles , rubella , chickenpox , or mumps .
- AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) , which develops in the late stage of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection. This virus attacks the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight off infection and some diseases.
- Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) . These viruses cause fever, sore throat, and fatigue.
- Other infections, such as:
Noncancerous (benign) growths
Types of noncancerous (benign) growths, which are usually harmless, include:
- A lipoma, a smooth, rubbery, dome-shaped lump that is easily movable under the skin.
, a sac of fluid and debris that sometimes hurts.
- Cystic lesions from acne are large pimples that occur deep under the skin.
- Branchial cleft cysts are found in the neck and do not usually cause problems unless they become infected. These cysts are most common in teenagers.
- An epidermal cyst (also called a sebaceous cyst) often appears on the scalp, ears, face, or back.
- A ganglion is a soft, rubbery lump (a type of cyst) on the front or back of the wrist.
- A thyroid nodule , which is an abnormal growth on the thyroid gland , or an enlarged thyroid gland ( goiter ) in the neck just below the Adam's apple. Tonsillitis may also cause swelling in the neck.
- A salivary gland problem, such as inflammation, a salivary stone, an infection, or a tumor.
- An inflammation of fatty tissue under the skin ( erythema nodosum ) or overgrown scar tissue ( keloid ).
Hernias or aneurysms
- An inguinal hernia is a soft lump in the groin or near the navel. It may be more visible when you cough. Hernias that disappear when you press on them may not need any treatment. Hernias that don't disappear when you press on them may be more serious and need medical treatment.
- A bulging section in the wall of a blood vessel (aneurysm) may feel like a pulsating lump in the abdomen, in the groin, or behind the knee. It can cause serious problems if it involves the blood vessels in the brain or the abdomen. Aneurysms may be a medical emergency and may require immediate evaluation.
Swelling caused by cancer
A lump caused by cancer is usually hard, irregularly shaped, and firmly fixed under the skin or deep in tissue. Although they usually do not cause pain, some types of cancerous lumps are painful. Most lumps are not caused by cancer.
Swelling may also be caused by:
- A side effect of a medicine, such as phenytoin (Dilantin).
- Other medical conditions and diseases, such as lupus , chronic fatigue syndrome , or rheumatoid arthritis .
Check your symptoms to decide if and when you should see a doctor.
The following home treatment measures may help you treat a painful lump or swollen gland.
- Avoid irritation.
- Do not squeeze, scratch, or pick at the lump. Do not stick a needle in it.
- Leave the lump exposed to the air whenever possible.
- Adjust your clothing to avoid rubbing the lump.
- Prevent infection. Do not squeeze, scratch, drain, or puncture a painful lump. Doing this can irritate or inflame the lump, push any existing infection deeper into the skin, or cause severe bleeding.
- Apply warm, wet washcloths to the painful lump for 20 to 30 minutes, 3 or 4 times a day. If you prefer, you can also use a hot water bottle over a damp towel. The heat and moisture can soothe the lump, increase blood circulation to the area, and speed healing. It can also bring a lump caused by infection to a head (but it may take 5 to 7 days). Be careful not to burn your skin. Do not use water that is warmer than bathwater.
Symptoms to watch for during home treatment
Call your doctor if any of the following occur during home treatment:
- A lump or swollen gland gets worse or does not go away after 2 weeks of home treatment.
- A skin infection develops.
- Symptoms become more severe or frequent.
- New symptoms develop.
Wash your hands frequently during cold and cough season. This may help prevent some upper respiratory infections that cause glands to swell.
Measures to decrease your risk of infection
- Keep your skin clean.
- Wash with lukewarm water and a mild soap or cleanser. Do not use soaps and skin cleansers that contain irritating substances.
- Rinse your skin thoroughly after you wash it, and gently pat it dry.
- Wash soon after participating in activities that cause you to sweat.
- Do not use skin care products that contain oil, because they may clog your pores. Instead, use water-based skin care products. Read the labels on products, and look for the terms oil-free or hypoallergenic.
- Do not squeeze, scratch, drain, or puncture a painful lump. Doing this can irritate or inflame the lump, push any existing infection deeper into the skin, or cause severe bleeding.
- Prevent irritation by wearing soft, cotton clothing or moleskin under sports equipment (if possible). Parts of equipment (such as chin straps) can rub your skin and irritate it. Adjust your clothing so that belts and straps or elastic from bras or underwear do not rub against your skin.
Preparing For Your Appointment
To prepare for your appointment, see the topic Making the Most of Your Appointment.
You can help your doctor diagnose and treat your condition by being prepared to answer the following questions:
- When did you first notice the lump or swollen gland?
- Has the lump changed? Has it gotten bigger or smaller? Has the color of the lump changed?
- Have you had any recent illness or injury?
- Have you had a similar problem in the past in the same area
or a different area?
- Were your symptoms evaluated?
- Was there a diagnosis?
- How was it treated?
- What home treatment measures have you tried? Did they help?
- What prescription and nonprescription medicines have you taken or used? Did they help?
- Do you have any health risks?
|Primary Medical Reviewer||William H. Blahd, Jr., MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine|
|Specialist Medical Reviewer||H. Michael O'Connor, MD - Emergency Medicine|
|Last Revised||April 14, 2011|
Last Revised: April 14, 2011
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