Other Works Consulted
Madoff RD, Fleshman JW (2003). American Gastroenterological Association Medical position statement: Diagnosis and care of patients with anal fissure. Gastroenterology, 124(1): 233–234.
Marcello PW (2010). Diseases of the anorectum. In M Feldman et al., eds., Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 9th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2257–2267. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Nelson RL (2011). Operative procedures for fissure in ano. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11).
Perry W, et al. (2010). Practice parameters for the management of anal fissures (3rd revision). Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 53(8): 1110–1115.
Welton ML, et al. (2010). Anal fissure and ulcer section of Anorectum. In GM Doherty, ed., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Surgery. 13th ed., pp. 710–712. New York: McGraw-Hill.
|By:||Reference Healthwise Staff||Last Revised: Reference May 15, 2012|
|Medical Review:||Reference Anne C. Poinier, MD - Internal Medicine
Reference C. Dale Mercer, MD, FRCSC, FACS - General Surgery