Privacy of Information
The laws that determine what sexual health rights minors have are state specific and vary throughout the country.
The Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF) is in the Bay Area of California, so the rights described here only apply to individuals within the state of California. If you live in another state or country, you will need to check with a local agency for further information.
Your Planned Parenthood office is often a good resource for that information. Within California, the rights, rules, and laws are the following:
- Patient Confidentiality for Teens
- Sexual Health Medical Care
- Abortion Access
- Sex Education
- Insurance Considerations
Patient Confidentiality for Teens
Confidentiality means privacy. It means that when you, as a young person from 12 to 17 years old, talk with your health care provider about certain issues like sex, drugs, and feelings, he or she will not tell your parents or guardians what you talk about unless you give your permission.
As of 2015, if you are covered under your parent's health insurance, you can get services like birth control, STI/pregnancy tests or outpatient mental health services from your usual health care provider and keep that information private, BUT YOU MUST TAKE ACTION.
It's simple to take action and protect your privacy: Submit a confidential Communication Request to your health plan provider today.
- Know your health plan and policy number.
- Contact your health plan.
- Submit a confidential communication request (get a form here: Confidential Communications Request).
What should I talk to the doctor about?
You can talk to the doctor or nurse about anything. Fill your doctor or nurse in on the following subjects.
- If you think you may be pregnant
- If you need birth control
- If you have a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
- If you need information about alcohol, tobacco, or other drug use
- If you want to talk about personal, school, family issues or feelings about sex and sexuality
- You are being abused, physically and/or sexually
- You are going to hurt yourself or someone else
- You are under 16 and having sex with someone 21 years or older
- You are under 14 and having sex with someone 14 years or older
What will my doctor or nurse tell my parents?
According to the laws of the State of California, your doctor or nurse cannot tell your parents or guardians anything about your exam if you're seen for any confidential services (excluding the reasons listed above).
These include care for problems or concerns in the areas of sexuality, mental health, and substance abuse. You, as a young person, can consent for care on your own in these areas. You need your parent or guardian's consent for other health services such as physicals and care of colds, flues, and injuries.
Talk to Someone
Even though you don't have to ask your parents, it's a good idea to talk with them or another adult you can trust about the medical care you need.
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Sexual Health Medical Care
In California, you can get a sexual health check up at any age – including STI screening – without parental consent.
If a STI is discovered and you are fearful of your parents finding out, you have a right to confidential treatment by your physician. Please discuss the best means to ensure your confidentiality with your doctor.
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California law also allows women to attain an abortion at any age without parental consent. California has less abortion restrictions compared to other states. It does not have required parental involvement, waiting periods, or constraints on publically funded abortion.
The Guttmacher Institute reports a 16 percent decrease in abortions in California among women aged 15-44 from 2008 to 2011. During this same time period, there has been a 2 percent decrease in abortion providers in California.
Although California law gives you the right to have an abortion without parental consent, the procedure can be an extremely difficult experience (emotionally and physically) and PAMF recommends that any teenager considering an abortion talk to a parent or trusted adult before making such a big decision.
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California law requires schools to teach sex education to their students in grades 7 to 12.
When educating students about sex, California schools are required to teach students about abstinence, the effectiveness and safety of various contraceptive methods, and HIV prevention.
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Although, your physician may not tell your parents about confidential services you are receiving, your insurance may not have the same policy. When you are discussing confidentiality with your physician, ask your him or her if the services and/or tests you are receiving will show up on your parents' insurance statement.
If you use a clinic or community resource like Planned Parenthood, ask about their confidentiality practices.
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Below are links PAMF accessed when researching this topic. PAMF does not sponsor or endorse any of these sites, nor does PAMF guarantee the accuracy of the information contained on them.
Understanding Confidentiality and Minor Consent in California, California Adolescent Health Collaborative.
Internet Links to Adolescent Health Data, California Adolescent Health Collaborative.